T he stephanid wasps are of great phylogenetic and biological significance among parasitic Hymenoptera, itself one of the major radiations of insects and of critical ecological and agricultural importance. The family, the only one of its superfamily (e.g., Gauld and Bolton, 1988; Goulet and Huber, 1993: although Rasnitsyn, 1988, 2000 includes the traditional Trigonalyoidea, Megalyroidea, Ceraphronoidea, and some extinct lineages in the Stephanoidea), is hypothesized by some authors to be basal within the diverse parasitoid lineage Apocrita (Rasnitsyn, 1975, 2000; Königsmann, 1978; Rohdendorf and Rasnitsyn, 1980; Whitfield, 1992, 1998; Vilhelmsen,...

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