Spicular radiolarians of the family Palaeoscenidiidae were recovered from the Llandovery to lower Wenlock of the Cape Phillips Formation, Nunavut, Canada. Several changes are made to the classification of these radiolarians. Goodbodium rarispinosum (Goodbody, 1986) was previously placed with PalaeoscenidiumDeflandre, 1953. InsolitignumMacDonald, 1999 is emended to allow for additional apical rays. Insolitignum cancellatum (Goodbody, 1986) includes species which were previously assigned to Palaeoscenidium, PalaeotripusGoodbody, 1986, and PalaeoephippiumGoodbody, 1986, owing to the variable development of one ray. Insolitignum peranimaMacDonald, 1999 is synonymized with I. dissimile (Goodbody, 1986). Palaeodecaradium apertum (Goodbody, 1986) was previously placed with Palaeoscenidium; Palaeotripus nudusGoodbody, 1986 is considered a synonym of P. apertum. Palaeoephippium is rediagnosed based on the branching of the basal rays; the new diagnosis also allows for more than six rays and in orientations other than originally diagnosed. Palaeoephippium araneaGoodbody, 1986 is a junior synonym of P. bifurcumGoodbody, 1986. Palaeoephippium reteformeGoodbody, 1986 and P. ramipendentesGoodbody, 1986 are synonymized with P. radicesGoodbody, 1986. Palaeotripus monospinosumGoodbody, 1986 is synonymized with Palaeoephippium spinosumGoodbody, 1986. One new species, Palaeodecaradium gordoni, is described. It possesses six rays; the apical rays are long and curved. The basal rays bear spinules on their lateral margins.