The endolithic life habit has evolved several times in the Bivalvia, e.g., in the superfamilies Modiolopsoidea (family Modiolopsidae), Mytiloidea (family Mytilidae, subfamily Lithophaginae), Arcoidea (family Arcidae), Cardioidea (family Tridacnidae), Veneroidea (family Petricolidae), Gastrochaenoidea, Myoidea (family Myidae), Hiatelloidea, and Pholadoidea (families Pholadidae and Teredinidae) (Otter, 1937; Yonge, 1963; Cox, 1969; Carter, 1978; Kleemann, 1980). The oldest known definite bivalve borings are Ordovician slotlike depressions in stromatoporoids, made by the facultative nestler/borer modiolopsid CorallidomusWhitfield, 1893 [1895] (Pojeta and Palmer, 1976; Wilson and Palmer, 1988). Pojeta and Palmer (1976) and Morton (1990) cited...

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