In their monograph Review of the Pelycosauria,Romer and Price (1940), proposed that the earliest synapsids (“pelycosaurs”) were cosmopolitan, despite the observation that amniotes appeared to be restricted to the paleotropics during the Late Carboniferous and Early Permian (290–282 Ma). Romer and Price (1940) accounted for the scarcity of terrestrial tetrapods, including “pelycosaurs,” in Lower Permian beds elsewhere to the absence of coeval continental deposits beyond North America and Europe. Indeed, most workers recognized a geographical and temporal gap between Permo-Carboniferous “pelycosaurs” and therapsid synapsids. Recent research has confirmed that varanopid and caseid “pelycosaurs” were components of therapsid-dominated Late...

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