Six extant and nine fossil species of the raninid Lyreidus de Haan, including Lyreidus (Lyreidus) lebucasis n. sp. and L. (Lysirude) hookeri n. sp., are recognized. Based on morphology of the anterolateral margin and sternum, the species are referred to two subgenera, Lyreidus (Lyraidus) and Lyreidus (Lysirude). The genus first appears in shallow-water, high-latitude Southern Hemisphere localities in New Zealand, Antarctica, and Chile in the early Eocene. Subsequently, the nominate subgenus is confined to the Southern Hemisphere until the Neogene, when it dispersed into the Indo-West Pacific region. Lyreidus (Lysirude) is documented by early and middle Eocene occurrences in Antarctica and New Zealand; however, all subsequent occurrences, fossil and recent, arc in the Northern Hemisphere. The disjunct modern distribution within the genus is confined to this subfamily; species are known from the western North Atlantic and the Indo-West Pacific.