Inferences about mode of growth in those groups of Bryozoa imporant in the fossil record are made from microstructure of zooecia and zoaria; from the geometric arrangements, morphology, and gradients of morphologic change of zooecia positioned within the zoarium; and from extrapolated relationships between skeletal and soft tissues in related Holocene species. Inferences about evolutionary trends and phylogenetic lineages are made through isolating the genetically controlled parts of variation in these phenetic features and placing the populations that exhibit them in their relative time-space sequence.

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