A new genus and species of scorpion from Fiddlers Green Dolomite Member of the Bertie Formation (Silurian) of Herkimer County, central New York State, is named Archaeophonus eurypteroides. A morphological review of the holotype of Proscorpius osborni (Whitfield) establishes that Proscorpius has walking legs that terminate in two terminal spines. The large, lateral compound eyes of Proscorpius are described. The abdominal plates ('sternites') did not have stigmata. One of the two other described specimens of Proscorpius osborni reveals the arrangement and form of the sternum and coxae. It is concluded that early scorpions lived in the same habitat as eurypterids, namely, in shallow water that was hypersaline to brackish and in shallow epeiric seas, enclosed marine bays, lagoons, and estuaries.

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