The following bibliography lists a total of 632 papers, dealing exclusively or partly with Foraminifera, published during the year 1956. Supplements of titles referring to previous years are at present in preparation and will shortly be published. The steady increase of publications in which fossil and recent Foraminifera are described, or only mentioned, makes it more and more difficult for the compiler single-handedly to cover the field in such a way that the annual bibliographies become reasonably complete. Such a goal can be achieved only with the active cooperation of the authors by forwarding their reprints automatically and without personal request to the compiler. The index for the year 1956 cites as new foraminiferal taxa: 1 suborder, 9 families, 5 subfamilies, 68 genera, 2 subgenera, 729 species, 111 varieties and subspecies, 10 nomina nova, 43 homonyms, 1 forma nova, and 1 nomen nudum. Forms to which the open nomenclature was applied are not, and will not be, listed in this and forthcoming bibliographies and supplements. The compiler is fully aware of the fact that there are more new foraminiferal taxa erected in 1956 than actually listed here in spite of every effort made for complete coverage. Publications recorded in the bibliography under No. 141, 307, 308, 383, 384, 391, 531, and possibly others which had not been accessible or available contain about 150 new taxa not listed in the index for 1956. Information regarding such omissions will be highly appreciated.