More than 20 partial scolecodont clusters were recovered from the Soom Shale Lagerstätte, South Africa. The specimens were found in association with chitinozoans, algae, conodont apparatuses and the enigmatic needle-like fossil Siphonacis. The Family Xanioprionidae is identified and the species Xanioprion? n. sp. is distinguished. The Family Mochtyellidae is also identified and the new genus Synaptogenys and new species S. rietvleiensis are described. The specimens represent the first described scolecodonts from South Africa and the first apparatus-based taxonomic study of specimens from Gondwana.