A very diverse ostracod fauna was discovered in the latest Permian strata of the Dongpan section, southwestern Guangxi, South China. Fifty-one species belonging to twenty-eight genera were identified and described, including two new species (Bairdia dongpanensis n. sp. and Spinomicrocheilinella anterocompressa n. sp). This type of assemblage, with nineteen palaeopsychrospheric species and four pelagic species, is the first world-wide deep-water ostracod fauna reported from the latest Permian strata and the first one recorded in the Permian of China. The palaeoenvironmental analysis allows one to propose an evaluation of the bathymetry variation along the Dongpan section.