The Ordovician (Caradoc) volcanic rocks of NE Snowdonia constitute two major groups, the Llewelyn Volcanic Group and the Snowdon Volcanic Group, which accumulated predominantly in shallow-water marine conditions. The younger Snowdon Volcanic Group comprised a bimodal, basalt-rhyolite suite and included a major caldera-forming eruption of acidic ash-flow tuffs superseded by both Surtseyan and Strombolian basaltic volcanism. Rhyolite domes were intruded into the volcanic sequence in the vicinity of the caldera. The Snowdon Cu-Pb-Zn vein mineralization comprises five paragenetic mineral assemblages. The veins cut rocks deposited within and over the caldera and it is proposed that the dominant controls of mineralization were volcanogenic. Circulation in hydrothermal cells, involving both juvenile fluids and seawater, deposited the minerals at a late stage in the evolution of the caldera.

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