The Tarim Craton (NW China) is a significant archive of tectonic events during the assembly and breakup of the Precambrian Supercontinents Columbia and Rodinia. It provides a comprehensive record of crustal development during the Proterozoic. In this paper, we review and synthesize the magmatic, metamorphic, and stratigraphic records of the Precambrian Tarim and delineate the geochronology of significant geological events that led to the formation of this major cratonic block. The extant geophysical and geological data show that the Tarim Craton consists mainly of the South and North Tarim blocks. The record of late Paleoproterozoic tectono-thermal events is well displayed in and across the craton, involving the amalgamation of these two blocks to form its unified crystalline basement during the Columbia buildup. However, the record of mid-Neoproterozoic events during the Rodinia assembly is only exposed around its periphery. The Proterozoic record of the craton includes the Mesoproterozoic–early Neoproterozoic low-grade metamorphic rock units and a late Neoproterozoic sedimentary cover. The early Mesoproterozoic stratigraphy in the SW, NE, and SE parts of the Tarim suggests a period of tectonic stability following the amalgamation of the North and South Tarim blocks in the late Paleoproterozoic, indicating the completion of its cratonic buildup.

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