The Cambrian Burgess Shale–type fossil Lagerstätten play a crutial role in revealing the origin and early evolution of arthropods. Tuzoiidae, one of the important bivalved arthropod groups, occupied a very important ecological niche in the Cambrian marine ecosystem. Here we describe a new taxon, Duplapex anima gen. et. sp. nov., in the family Tuzoiidae, on the basis of four exceptionally preserved specimens from the early Cambrian (Stage 3) Qingjiang biota of Hubei, South China. Duplapex is characterized by an ornament bivalved carapace, the ventral notch (vno) and doublure spine (dsp) of the valve, a pair of compound eyes connected by the fleshy annulated eye stalks. Despite having an unusual morphology for the group, the new taxon is recognized as a tuzoiid arthropod and indicates that these problematic euarthropods possessed a greater degree of morphological disparity than previously considered. D. anima, as well as the new reported Tuzoia. sp. from the Fandian biota, represent the oldest occurrence of Tuzoiidae, extending its stratigraphic range to Cambrian stage 3 and expanding the palaeobiographic distribution of the group to the northern border of Yangtze Platform.

Thematic collection: This article is part of the Advances in the Cambrian Explosion collection available at: https://www.lyellcollection.org/cc/advances-cambrian-explosion

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