Plio-Pleistocene sediments exposed around the ophiolitic Troodos Massif document spectacular uplift from below sea level to a maximum height of c. 2000 m. Sedimentation reflects a dominant control of focused tectonic uplift, modified by the effects of glacio-eustatic sea-level change and climatic change. Understanding the uplift and controls on deposition has been hindered by an inadequate age model. Here, we present a preliminary investigation of the polarity of remanent magnetizations recorded within the upper part of the Pliocene succession in the Pissouri and Mesaoria basins and from the Pleistocene marine terrace deposits that border the Troodos Massif. When integrated with available lithostatigraphic and biostratigraphic data, the main results are as follows. Focused uplift of the Troodos Massif began during the Late Pliocene, either between 2.14 and 1.95 Ma or immediately prior to 1.77 Ma. Shallow-marine, ophiolite-derived clastic and bioclastic sediments accumulated in both the Mesaoria and Pissouri basins, implying that the Troodos Massif was uplifted as a single tectonic entity. Non-marine, deltaic and fluvial facies prograded into both of the basins during the Pleistocene (1.77 Ma–recent). Marine terraces in SW and south Cyprus were cut and covered by littoral sediments from <0.78 Ma, suggesting that high rates of uplift of the Troodos Massif persisted into mid- and late Pleistocene time.