Sedimentology, petrography and the provenance of Holocene sediments from the Southern Chile Trench (36–47°S) were investigated in an integrated approach combining description of a collection of gravity cores, measurements of physical properties, quantitative X-ray petrography and modal analysis. The sediments studied were trench hemipelagic sediments, fan deposits, and more distal hemipelagic sediments from the Nazca Plate. The trench is mostly fed by multiple point sources via submarine canyons. Sandy turbidites show a southward increase in sediment maturity. Whereas volcanic lithic fragments and plagioclase represent the dominant fraction in the north, quartz content strongly increases in the southern part of the study area, in line with source lithologies. Further north, active volcanoes in the Main Cordillera represent almost the entire provenance signal as a result of a strong contribution of highly erodible volcanic rocks. Recurrence rates of sandy and silty turbidites in the trench fan sediments indicate a link to the palaeoseismic record on land. Our study documents the potential usefulness of proximal turbidites to reconstruct palaeoseismicity, even at a scale of single segments of the plate boundary.