The melting of large ice caps over the span of many centuries to several millennia is an important agent of dynamic change within the solid Earth (Fig. 1). It induces significant redistributions of mass on the surface of the Earth, drives sea-level and land elevation changes, and readjusts lithospheric stresses in formerly glaciated areas and adjacent regions, effects manifest as increased seismicity and, eventually, in powerful earthquakes. It was an understanding that was apparent a century ago (De Geer 1888; Kolderup 1913) but has found increased support during the 20th century. In particular, the discovery of...

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