Controversy exists over the presence of normal faults that initiate and slip at low angles (<30°). Evidence from the Zuccale Fault, which dips c. 15° east on the island of Elba, Italy, indicates that the early stages of low-angle faulting were synchronous with development of subsidiary high-angle footwall faults. These footwall structures controlled fault rock distribution and caused the development of flow folds similar to those produced in analogue studies of synchronous high- and low-angle faulting. The current configuration of footwall structures indicates that the Zuccale Fault cannot have originally dipped greater than c. 20° east, and represents a primary low-angle normal fault.

You do not have access to this content, please speak to your institutional administrator if you feel you should have access.