Study of geochemistry, examination of isotope ages of detrital minerals, palaeomagnetic analysis, and a study of the trilobites were performed to provide constraints on the palaeogeographical position of the Holy Cross Mountains in Late Ediacaran–Early Palaeozoic time. The geochemical results indicate an active continental margin or continental island arc provenance of the Ediacaran sediments. Sediments from a passive continental margin were deposited here during the Cambrian and Ordovician. The palaeomagnetic pole isolated from Cambrian rocks of the Małopolska region of the Holy Cross Mountains corresponds to the Cambrian segment of the Baltic apparent polar wander path. Isotope age estimations indicate that Cambrian sediments of the Małopolska region contain detritus not only from a latest Neoproterozoic source but also from sources with ages of c. 0.8–0.9 Ga, 1.5 Ga and 1.8 Ga. The Małopolska, Brunosilesia, Dobrugea and Moesia terranes, which originally developed near the present southern edge of Baltica and were partly involved in the Cadomian orogen, were dextrally relocated along its Trans-European Suture Zone margin. The first stage of this movement took place as early as latest Ediacaran time, while Baltica rotated anticlockwise. Anticlockwise rotation of Baltica at the Cambrian–Ordovician boundary implies further dextral movement of the Małopolska block.

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