Although it is generally accepted that buckle folds will not develop in a perfectly planar layer without the presence of some irregularity or perturbation at which the folds initiate, there are very few cases in which individual natural folds can be linked to specific irregularities. Within the Lower Ordovician Abbaye de Villers Formation, Anglo-Brabant Deformation Belt, metre-scale tectonic folds occur, of which the position and, to a certain extent, the geometry appear to be controlled by slump folds and related features. The metre-scale tectonic folds, interpreted as parasitic structures on the limb of a large-scale host fold, occur only within a stratigraphic level affected by slumping. In this level, tectonic antiforms tend to form superimposed on antiformal slump folds and on zones of abrupt, slump-related thickness increase, and tectonic synforms on synformal slump folds and on zones of abrupt thickness decrease.   The rather irregular 3D geometry of sedimentary sequences suggests that many more similar cases should exist in which folds can be linked to specific irregularities. However, possibly it is also this abundance of irregularities in sedimentary sequences, in combination with fold and outcrop scale, that makes it difficult to attribute a particular fold to a particular perturbation.

You do not currently have access to this article.