D. M. D. James writes: I congratulate the authors on a very clear and comprehensive account of a widespread and complex phenomenon of increasing economic importance. However, presumably for didactic ease, they have made some simplifications that I feel are counterproductive for full physical understanding.

It is not entirely clear from the paper that sand intrusions require a concatenation of source/seal properties that on the face of it are very rare. These are that the source sand bed must have a negligible grain cohesion typical of burial at very low vertical effective stress (not shallow depth, necessarily) and that the...

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