The Rogart pluton is a typical example of high Ba–Sr granitic magmatism, emplaced in northern Scotland towards the end of the Caledonian Orogeny. It consists of three granitoid facies (tonalite, granodiorite, granite) that are locally associated with large enclaves of coeval mafic appinite. The overall range of compositions is therefore extreme, with MgO from 11.6 to <0.1 wt%, SiO2 from 47.50 to >73.0 wt%, with relatively high Na2O+K2O especially for the mafic rocks (up to 8.4 wt%), associated with K2O/Na2O≈1.5. Trace element abundances vary extensively and coherently, and the typical high Ba–Sr elemental signature of the pluton is also carried by the appinites. This is consistent with a genetic relationship throughout the suite. Sr, Nd and O isotope ratios are sufficiently similar to support this contention, but vary systematically with magma evolution. The appinites were derived from an enriched mantle source (143Nd/144Nd400≈0.51194, 87Sr/86Sr400≈0.7061) with high δ18O (≈+8‰), probably related to active contemporaneous subduction. Quantitative elemental and isotopic modelling suggests that the granitoid magmas evolved from the appinites by crystal fractionation accompanied by minor crustal contamination. Early fractionation from appinite to tonalite was driven by crystallization of pyroxene plus biotite with minor plagioclase, replaced by a feldspar-dominated assemblage to produce granodiorite and granite. The total amount of crust assimilated was less than 25%, highlighting the juvenile nature of the high Ba–Sr granite class.