Satellite images of Africa and Digital Elevation Models exhibit a c. 6000 km length NW–SE-striking lineament extending from southwestern Algeria to Kenya. This lineament often corresponds to a 200 to 300 km wide fault swarm, including faults sporadically interrupted, including faults sporadically interrupted, with a possible late Proterozoic origin. We name it the Tibesti Lineament as it is the most obvious and best documented massif along this structure. Some plate-scale geophysical studies substantiate the connection of this tectonic lineament with a major discontinuity affecting the deep lithosphere. The existence of other lithospheric fault zones crosscutting the African plate and/or the neighbouring plates of the Gondwana is underlined.