Major and minor fracture analysis of the Tyndrum Fault Zone, Scotland, reveals a late Silurian history of transtensional deformation with opening across the zone as well as left-lateral strike-slip movements. The extensional phases are characterized by hydrothermal quartz veins and breccias associated with the early stages of precious-metal mineralization. The strike-slip movements are characterized by cataclastic textures and are associated with the later stages of the precious-metal mineralization. Further transtensional deformation in the Carboniferous is indicated by right-lateral strike-slip movements, associated with fractures throughout the zone containing both cataclastic and extensional hydrothermal quartz veins: the quartz veins are associated with base-metal mineralization. The pre-Devonian, WSW–ENE-directed, transtensional deformation of the zone is extrapolated to the whole Dalradian Terrane, the driving force being the gravitational collapse of the orogenic welt parallel to the tectonic trend. The necessary area increase is signified by the intrusion of the end-Caledonian granitic magmas and quartz-veins. The Carboniferous right-lateral movements resulting from N-S extension are related to similar movements, also transtensional, on the Great Glen Fault Zone and in the Midland Valley; the associated mineralization is related to a broader Dinantian base-metal mineralizing event.