The Calatrava Volcanic Province is characterized by an intra-plate alkaline undersaturated magmatic association of melilitites, nephelinites, alkali olivine basalts and leucitites that were extruded in the central Iberian Peninsula (Spain) during Late Miocene–Quaternary time. This volcanism can be related to the following two-stage scenario: (1) an initial mantle-diapir stage, during which magma generation would have occurred at the lithosphere/asthenosphere boundary triggering minor accumulation processes at the crust/mantle interface, and consequent weakening/extension of the upper crust; and, (2) a final indentation stage related to disruption effects caused by the tectonic welding of the Prebetic Arc onto the Iberian foreland.

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