Biotic cycles in the early Silurian correlate broadly with postulated sea-level changes, but are better explained by a model that involves episodic changes in oceanic state. Primo episodes were characterized by cool high-latitude climates, cold oceanic bottom waters, and high nutrient supply which supported abundant and diverse planktonic communities. Secundo episodes were characterized by warmer high-latitude climates, salinity-dense oceanic bottom waters, low diversity planktonic communities, and carbonate formation in shallow waters. Extinction events occurred between primo and secundo episodes, with stepwise extinctions of taxa reflecting fluctuating conditions during the transition period. The pattern of turnover shown by conodont faunas, together with sedimentological information and data from other fossil groups, permit the identification of two cycles in the Llandovery to earliest Wenlock interval. The episodes and events within these cycles are named: the Spirodden Secundo episode, the Jong Primo episode, the Sandvika event, the Malmøykalven Secundo episode, the Snipklint Primo episode, and the Ireviken event.

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