M. J. HOLE, N. H. TREWIN, J. STILL; Mobility of the high field strength, rare earth elements and yttrium during late diagenesis. Journal of the Geological Society ; 149 (5): 689–692. doi: https://doi.org/10.1144/gsjgs.149.5.0689
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Authigenic titanite occurs as a secondary, pore-filling cement in the Permian sandstones of the Cock of Arran, Scotland. The titanite is apparently not associated with in situ alteration of a specific mineral phase or phases, suggesting it crystallized from fluids migrating through these porous and permeable sandstones. The titanite contains significant concentrations of Zr, Nb, P, Ce, Nd, Gd and Y, implying that these elements were also carried in solution, probably in the form of halogen or carbonate complexes associated with hydrothermal circulation related to the intrusion of the adjacent Northern Granite.