U-Pb zircon model ages for eleven major units from the Halaban-Al Amar region of the eastern Arabian Shield indicate three stages of evolution: (1) plate convergence, (2) plate collision, and (3) post-orogenic intracratonic activity.
Convergence occurred between the western Afif and eastern Ar Rayn plates that were separated by oceanic crust. Remnants of oceanic crust now comprise the ophiolitic complexes of the Urd group. The oldest plutonic unit in the study is from one of these complexes and gave an age of 694 ± 8 Ma. Detrital zircons from the sedimentary Abt formation of the Urd group, which is intercalated with the ophiolitic rocks, were derived from source rocks with a mean age of 710 Ma. The Abt formation may be an accretionary wedge on the western margin of the Ar Rayn plate. Plate convergence was terminated by collision of the Afif and Ar Rayn plates during the Al Amar orogeny which began about 670 Ma. During collision, the Urd group rocks were deformed and in part obducted on to one or both plates. Synorogenic leucogranitoid rocks were intruded from 670 to 640 Ma. From about 640 to 630 Ma, widespread unfoliated dioritic plutons were emplaced in the Ar Rayn block, and represent the end of orogenesis related to collision. There is no definitive evidence for a significantly older basement beneath the study region.