Metamorphism connected with the main growth and deformation stages of the Himalaya ranges from mid-Cretaceous to the Quaternary. Northward subduction gave rise in the early to mid-Cretaceous to an island are complex with greenschists, amphibolites, granulites and blueschists in the W (Kohistan-Ladakh) and an Andean-type margin with greenschist-amphibolite grade metamorphism in the E (India and Tibet). Ophiolitic nappes were thrust southwards over the Indian continental margin in the Palaeogene during the final stages of closure of the southern arm of Tethys. The Indus-Zangbo Suture bifurcates westwards and between the two sutures lies the Kohistan-Ladakh island arc which was converted to an Andean-type arc in the Palaeocene-Eocene. The Karakorum Range underwent northward subduction at least during the late Cretaceous to give rise to a complex and prominent calc-alkaline batholith. Post-collisional southward thrusting of crustal slabs over the Indian continental margin took place in the early Miocene with production of high-grade metamorphism, inverted isograds and crustal melt granites. Later southward thrusting in the Pliocene to Quaternary gave rise to localized low-grade recrystallization against the thrusts.

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