Wave refraction computations provide at least a qualitative description of the effects of near-shore sea-bed topography on wave conditions in the breaker zone. For Start Bay the presence of the Skerries Bank is important in that for waves travelling from the NE a considerable degree of focussing occurs. For other incident directions the wave energy is more equitably distributed along the coastline.

Inclusion of shoaling effects and, where justified, other shallow effects and, where justified, other shallow water wave phenomena provides a quantitative measure of wave conditions suitable for the prediction of sediment motion but considerable care needs to be taken in the interpretation solutions.

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