Soil erosion is one of the most significant challenges for soil management and agri-food production threatening human habitat and livelihood. Although soil erosion due to surficial processes is well-studied, erosion due to subsurface processes such as internal soil pipes has often been overlooked. Internal soil pipes directly contribute to the total soil loss in agricultural fields and impede agricultural sustainability. Locating, measuring, and mapping internal soil pipes and their networks are vital to assessing the total soil loss in agricultural fields. Their hidden and uncorrelated nature of subsurface occurrences constricts the applicability of manual and remote sensing-based detection techniques. Non-invasive agrogeophysical methods can overcome these limitations with detailed subsurface pictures and high spatial resolution. In this study, the applicability of three agrogeophysical methods including seismic refraction tomography (SRT), electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) was tested at Goodwin Creek, an experimental field site with established internal soil pipes. SRT showed low P and S wave velocities anomalies in soil pipe-affected zones. ERT results indicated the location of soil pipes with high resistivity anomalies. However, both SRT and ERT lack resolution to identify individual soil pipes. GPR diffraction hyperbolas and their apexes however effectively identified individual soil pipes. The agrogeophysical anomalies for soil pipes were compared with the low penetration resistance of the cone penetrologger (CPL) results. Correspondence between low PR in CPL and agrogeophysical anomalies verify the locations of internal soil pipe-affected zones. Moreover, the fragipan layer is identified below the soil pipe-affected zone by all three methods.

You do not have access to this content, please speak to your institutional administrator if you feel you should have access.