This paper presents an improved nature-based algorithm, namely multivariable modified teaching learning based optimization (MM-TLBO) algorithm, as in an iterative process can estimates the best values for the model parameters in a multi-objective problem. The algorithm works in two computational phases: the teacher phase and the learner phase. The major purpose of the MM-TLBO algorithm is to improve the value of the learners and thus, improving the value of the model parameters which leads to the optimal solution. The variables of each learner (model) are the radius (R), depth (h), shape factor (q), density contrast (ρ) and axis location (x0) parameters. We apply MM-TLBO and TLBO methods for the residual gravity anomalies caused by the buried masses with a simple geometry such as spheres, horizontal and vertical cylinders. The efficiency of these methods are also tested by noise corruption synthetic data, as the acceptable results were obtained. The obtained results indicate the better performance the MM-TLBO algorithm than the TLBO algorithm. We have utilized the MM-TLBO for the interpretation of the six residual gravity anomaly profiles from Iran, USA, Sweden and Senegal. The advantage of the MM-TLBO inversion is that it can estimates the best solutions very fast without falling into local minimum and reaches to a premature convergence. The considered primary population for the synthetic and real gravity data are thirty and fifty models. The results show which this method is able to achieve the optimal responses even if a small population of learners had been considered.