As one important aspect for building a smart city and improving the resilience of urban centers and metropolitan mega cities, cost-effective construction, maintenance and operation of infrastructures in urban underground space poses great challenge to engineers and urban planners. Meanwhile, this challenge brings great opportunities to geophysicists for expanding our profession into a new territory of applications that (hopefully positively) impacts human being's interaction to his direct environment. Geophysical techniques applied in urban environment (also known as urban geophysics, Liu and Chan, 2007) is not simply the application of geophysical exploration in the cities. Urbanization has brought about major...

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