A novel technique is proposed to improve shallow induced polarization (IP) and resistivity survey results. We propose the apparent resistivity and apparent chargeability of second potential differences (SPD), employing two focused sources (FS) mathematically manipulated by superposition. To test the idea, a synthetic model is developed with two bodies. The first body is a small shallow heterogeneity which is above the second and larger body. This synthetic model illustrates the shape and response of the apparent resistivity and chargeability for FS under the random noise and masking effect. These processes reduce electromagnetic coupling, telluric noise, contamination in channel links, and small heterogeneous responses.
A field test of the SPD for FS was carried out in an agricultural site irrigated with wastewater, where contaminated water laden with metals has been accumulating for years in the soil. Soil samples were collected and analyzed throughout the geophysical survey to correlate the resistivity-IP results. Soil laboratory analysis included metal content, moisture content and texture. The parameters computed after applying the SPD for FS depicted a better lateral resolution where vertical and horizontal boundaries of the anomaly zones were well defined. It was possible to determine the low permeability horizontal layer made of clay-soil (called tepetate), which is a barrier for water and metals.