ABSTRACT

A piezoelectric transducer is an electromechanical sensor which converts electrical energy (voltage signal) to mechanical energy (displacement signal) and vice versa by taking advantage of the piezoelectric crystal. Depending on the physical combination of transducer parts, sensors may have a linear or non-linear response to the input signal. In seismic tests such as ultrasonic non-destructive testing (NDT) methods, analyzing stress wave propagation through the specimen gives an assessment of its condition. The signal attenuation is an important parameter to assess the condition of specimen which can be done by having the displacement signal as an output. However, instead of the displacement signal, the piezoelectric transducer provides the voltage signal as an output. Therefore, to get reliable and accurate results, it is essential to calibrate the transducers. An appropriate calibration results in a suitable Transfer Function (TF) which can be used to properly calculate the displacement signal. In this study, the output displacement of a 1 MHz piezoelectric transducer is measured using a laser vibrometer with a nanometer resolution. Measurements and calculated TF showed at frequencies of 0.1, 1, and 1.5 MHz, TF values are 0.8, 0.08, and 0.2 respectively which is a non-linear relation between displacement (absolute signal) and voltage (relative signal) as it was expected. Then, numerical simulation is implemented as part of this study to simulate all electrical and mechanical components of the piezoelectric transducer. The simulation was verified with the absolute displacement measurements result from the laser vibrometer.

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