With the increase in mining depth, the presence of goafs has become increasingly severe in mine safety. The accurate and effective detection of underground goafs and their water abundance is the key to ensure the safety of mine production. On the basis of the relevant research, this paper defines different goaf types from the perspective of geophysical exploration and discusses the geophysical prerequisites for goaf detection. DC methods, electromagnetic methods, seismic methods, and other geophysical methods on the ground and in the subsurface are reviewed and summarized using the method's principle, research status, and technical features. Research progress on the geophysical methods in goafs and their water abundance detection are introduced, including the electrical source short-offset transient electromagnetic method (SOTEM), the wave-field transformation and synthetic aperture of the transient electromagnetic method, and comprehensive detection. At the end of the paper, a direction for the development of coal mined-out areas and their water abundance detection is put forward, including information fusion technology, ground-airborne electromagnetic methods, magnetic resonance sounding (MRS), surface-borehole transient electromagnetic method, surface-borehole seismic methods, and seismic while tunneling technology. The application prospects of these methods are discussed, and the results of this study are expected to considerably improve the location precision and resolution of the goaf detection on the basis of the implications of these techniques.