A single-polarization, vertical wave propagation transmitted-vertical wave propagation received (VV), terrestrial imaging radar and time domain reflectometry (TDR) equipment were used to monitor the fluctuations of water content within two thin (15.24 centimeters) compacted clay test sections (each 30.48-m long, by 15.34-m wide). Radar imagery was obtained in 2013 on March 22, June 26, July 7 and July 10 using a Gamma Remote Sensing Portable Radar Interferometer version II (GAMMA Remote Sensing and Consulting AG, Bern, Switzerland). In situ observations were acquired hourly using TDR probes. The background, methodology, and comparison of the results of the remote sensing and in situ measurements are presented. Specifically, two remote sensing data reduction algorithms were considered. The water content results obtained from these algorithms were compared with the water content values derived from correlations with the dielectric permittivity values measured by the TDR probes. Key findings include: 1) there were differences between the values obtained from the data reduction methods, 2) there were differences between the values obtained from the remote sensing methods and the values obtained from the in situ method, and 3) the identification of additional avenues of research. The remotely sensed measurements were, on average, higher than the in situ measurements (the average volumetric water content values were 0.2 and 0.5 depending on the method, as obtained via the remotely sensed methods; the average volumetric water content value in the compacted native soil test sections was 0.22, as obtained via the in situ method).