The general aim of this study is, for the first time, to investigate the inner structure of mud volcanoes in Azerbaijan using several near-surface electromagnetic methods. The central-loop transient electromagnetic (TEM) method and the radiomagnetotelluric (RMT) method were applied on mud volcanoes near Perekishkul, Azerbaijan. These methods complement each other in terms of depth of investigation. In particular, the RMT method generally resolves the very shallow resistivity structures (<10 m) directly beneath the mud volcanoes, whereas the TEM method provides a resolution of up to 100- to 150-m depth.

The obtained data sets were processed and interpreted individually. The TEM data were interpreted by conventional 1-D inversion algorithms, i.e., Occam's and Marquardt inversion, and by a quasi-2-D laterally constrained inversion. The RMT data were interpreted by 2-D inversion. Subsequently, a combined model regarding the sediments and corresponding resistivities for the area around the mud volcanoes was derived.

Overall, a resistivity range of 1–20 Ω-m was observed. The resistivity models obtained from TEM support the assumption of a three-layer subsurface for the resolved depth range. Also, a lateral resistivity variation caused by the mud volcanoes was observed. Furthermore, the RMT results indicate the presence of shallow low resistivity structures, which can be interpreted as mud reservoirs.

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