Earthquake effects cause dramatic social damage in terms of deaths, injuries and homeless, as well as economic losses when they impact human activities and infrastructures. During the last four decades, the number of people living in areas potentially exposed to earthquakes has almost doubled, as about 2.7 billion people presently reside in seismically active regions. In the period 2001-2020, earthquakes (and tsunamis) were responsible for an average (per year) of 38,000 killed people, more than 6.2 million affected people, and economic losses of about 35 billion US$ (CRED’s Emergency Events Database, 2021; https://www.cred.be/publications). Not only the most destructive events...

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