The Scaglia Toscana Formation (Scisti Policromi Auctt.) is one of the most investigated formations of the Tuscan Nappe. The formation is widely exposed in the Chianti Mounts and despite the number of studies in this area, some aspects remain poorly known and debated.
In this paper new litho- and bio-stratigraphic data from eight key-sections distributed over the entire area are provided and discussed in order to clarify the stratigraphic relationships among different lithostratigraphic members, as well as the depositional ages of each member. The formation was deposited in the Cretaceous-Oligocene time interval and it can be subdivided into five lithostratigraphic members: i) the “Argilliti di Brolio” (wine-red shales with sporadic siliceous calcilutites and rare interbedded cherts); ii) the “Marne del Sugame” (red and pink marls, calcareous marls and marly limestones with interbedded calcarenitic beds and ruditic lens-shaped bodies including calcareous-siliceous clasts); iii) the “Argilliti di Cintoia” (grey-green to black shales, locally with manganese-rich siliceous calcilutites and cherts); iv) the “Calcareniti di Montegrossi” (thin beds of calcilutites and calcarenites with varicoloured shaly-marly interbeds); and v) the “Argilliti e Calcareniti di Dudda” (alternating thin beds of calcilutites and calcarenites with varicoloured shaly-marly interbeds). These members were deposited in a marine environment and have been interpreted as deposited in a turbiditic system, in which shaly and calcareous turbiditic members have been attributed to a basin plain below the CCD, whereas the marls and marly limestones of the Marne del Sugame Member were deposited in a slope/ramp environment above or close to the CCD. Furthermore, the combination of these new data with structural informations coming from the literature allowed a better paleogeographic reconstruction of the paleobasin.
In order to better explain these data, the paper is accompanied by two geological maps realized in the past but never distributed. The two geological maps, at the scale of 1:25,000, cover the whole area from the Cintoia (south of Florence) to the San Gusmè (north of Siena) villages.