Monte Amiata is a small volcano composed by trachytic to olivine latitic lava flows and domes emplaced in a very short time between 305 and 231 ka. The main petrographic features are represented by the occurrence of i) abundant rounded magmatic enclaves increasing in dimension and quantity passing from early to late erupted Monte Amiata volcanic rocks, ii) large sanidine megacrysts, mainly confined in the second stage of activity characterised by the emplacement of exogenous domes and massive lava flows, and iii) mafic olivine latitic lava flows, with intermediate compositions between the early silica-rich volcanic rocks and the most mafic rounded magmatic enclaves hosted by the Monte Amiata volcanic rocks. The occurrence of rounded magmatic enclaves testifies fresh magma injection and stirring within a differentiated magma reservoir. This triggered the pouring out of the viscous trachydacitic resident magma. A reverse differentiation pathway is observed with time of magma emplacement, which is accompanied by the decrease of silica contents and increase of MgO and compatible elements passing from early trachydacites to final olivine-latites. The same timely reverse differentiation pathway is observed among magmatic enclaves, with the most mafic terms hosted by final olivine-latitic lava flows. Fine-grained rounded magmatic enclaves, indeed, range in composition from potassic trachybasalt (absarokite) to olivine-latite. The overall geochemical and isotopic features agree with a mixing process between a highly differentiated (i.e., high silica), and partially crystallised, high-K calc-alkaline end- member and a mafic ultrapotassic magma possibly leucite-bearing. Absence of leucite in the Amiata rocks and enclaves is due to high-silica activity of derived magmas caused by the high-silica end-member of the mixing process.

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