Barremian-Aprian shallow-water carbonate deposits (also known generically as Urgonian limestones) are found in several tectonic-structural units of the Carpathian area and its foreland: (1) the Bucovinic and Transylvanian nappes of the eastern Carpathians, with Urgonian limestones occurring in the Rarau. Haghimas and Persani mountains; (2) the Danubian Autochthon and the Getic Nappe of the southern Carpathians, with Urgonian limestones present in the Cema Unit (autochthonous) and in the Dambovicioara. Vanturarita, Hateg-Pui and Resita areas (within the Getic Nappe); (3) the autochthon of the northern Apuseni Mountains (Bihor-Padurea Craiului Unit), and (4) Moesian Platform and southern Dobrogea. Some of these units have never (or only very poorly) been studied for their calcareous algae content. This study mostly concerns seven of these units: the Moesian Platform/southern Dobrogea, Haghimas, Persani, Dambovicioara, Vanturarita, and Resita areas, and the Padurea Craiului massif. From these seven areas, a total of 104 species of calcareous algae have been described (75 dasycladalean species, 15 halimedacean species, 9 gymnocodiacean species, 4 rhodophycean species, and one species of charophyte). Most of the taxa have been identified in the Resita-Moldova Noua area (a total of 77 species), followed by the Padurea Craiului (40 species), Haghimas (23 species), and southern Dobrogea-Moesian Platform (20 species) areas. The other four areas (Dambovicioara, Cerna-Valcan, Vanturarita and Persani) provided very scarce information (7, 6, 4 and 2 identified species respectively). The most common taxa are Salpingoporella muehlbergii and Salpingoporella pygmaea (as Salpingoporella exilis), followed by Anisoporella? cretacea. Comments on the correct taxonomic assignment of some species (e.g. Salpingoporella dinarica) that, in our opinion, do not occur within Romania, and some stratigraphic, paleoecologic and paleogeographic remarks are included.