Abstract

Extensive dolomitization is prevalent in the platform and periplatform carbonates in the Lower-Middle Permian strata in the Midland and greater Permian Basin. Early workers have found that the platform and shelf-top carbonates were dolomitized, whereas slope and basinal carbonates remained calcitic, proposing a reflux dolomitization model as the possible diagenetic mechanism. More importantly, they underline that this dolomitization pattern controls the porosity and forms an updip seal. These studies are predominately conducted using well logs, cores, and outcrop analogs, and although exhibiting high resolution vertically, such determinations are laterally sparse. We have used supervised Bayesian classification and probabilistic neural networks (PNN) on a 3D seismic volume to create an estimation of the most probable distribution of dolomite and limestone within a subsurface 3D volume petrophysically constrained. Combining this lithologic information with porosity, we then illuminate the diagenetic effects on a seismic scale. We started our workflow by deriving lithology classifications from well-log crossplots of neutron porosity and acoustic impedance to determine the a priori proportions of the lithology and the probability density functions calculation for each lithology type. Then, we applied these probability distributions and a priori proportions to 3D seismic volumes of the acoustic impedance and predicted neutron porosity volume to create a lithology volume and probability volumes for each lithology type. The acoustic impedance volume was obtained by model-based poststack inversion, and the neutron porosity volume was obtained by the PNN. Our results best supported a regional reflux dolomitization model, in which the porosity is increasing from shelf to slope while the dolomitization is decreasing, but with sea-level forcing. With this study, we determined that diagenesis and the corresponding reservoir quality in these platforms and periplatform strata can be directly imaged and mapped on a seismic scale by quantitative seismic interpretation and supervised classification methods.

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