Characterization of subsurface stress, deformation, and pore fluid pressure plays an important role in understanding regional geology, geophysics, and geomechanics of reservoirs, and thus assessing the economics and risks of conventional/unconventional petroleum exploration, development, and production. The early studies have established much work to discuss this topic by using laboratory measurements, seismic imaging, well-logging methods, physical modeling, and numerical modeling. Among them, failure and/or tectonic structures obtained from drilling core rocks and microseismic data are the most direct way to learn the subsurface deformation. New analytical solutions, and numerical and physical models developed based on different cases or conditions are...

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