The pore structure controls the formation processes of tight oil reservoirs. It is meaningful to study the characteristics and origin of the pore structure of the tight oil reservoir. We have analyzed the pore structure of the tight oil reservoir by thin sections, scanning electron microscopy, and mercury intrusion porosimetry. We analyze the origin of the pore structure based on sedimentological, diagenetic, and tectonism processes. The porosity of the tight oil reservoirs is mainly approximately 2%–10%, and the permeability is mainly from 0.01 to 0.3 mD. The pores of the lacustrine tight oil reservoir can be classified into the primary pore and the secondary pore. The main pores are matrix micropores and clay intercrystalline pores, as well as a few dissolved pores. However, the primary residual intergranular pore has almost disappeared, leading to a poor connectivity with a general size between 20 and 50 μm. The pore throat is divided into three categories (type I, type II, and type III) according to the porosity, permeability, and throat size and distribution. We determine that the pore structure of the lacustrine tight oil reservoir is related to sedimentary, diagenetic processes, and later tectonic events. The compaction and cementation are the main factors, whereas the dissolution and tectonic events have minor effects.