Artificial intelligence methods have a very wide range of applications. From speech recognition to self-driving cars, the development of modern deep-learning architectures is helping researchers to achieve new levels of accuracy in different fields. Although deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) (a kind of deep-learning technique) have reached or surpassed human-level performance in image recognition tasks, little has been done to transport this new image classification technology to geoscientific problems. We have developed what we believe to be the first use of CNNs to identify lithofacies in cores. We use highly accurate models (trained with millions of images) and transfer learning to classify images of cored carbonate rocks. We found that different modern CNN architectures can achieve high levels of lithologic image classification accuracy (approximately 90%) and can aid in the core description task. This core image classification technique has the potential to greatly standardize and accelerate the description process. We also provide the community with a new set of labeled data that can be used for further geologic/data science studies.