Interpretation of geologic structures entails ambiguity and uncertainties. It usually requires interpreter judgment and is time consuming. Deep exploitation of resources challenges the accuracy and efficiency of geologic structure interpretation. The application of machine-learning algorithms to seismic interpretation can effectively solve these problems. We analyzed the theory and applicability of five machine-learning algorithms. Seismic forward modeling is a key connection between the model and seismic response, and it can obtain seismic data of known geologic structures. Based on the modeling data, we first optimized the seismic attributes sensitive to the target geologic structure and then we verified the accuracy of the five machine-learning algorithms by the cross-checking method. In this case, the random forest algorithm had the highest accuracy. So we examined the structural interpretation method based on a random forest using the 3D seismic reflection data from coalfield exploration. The prediction effect of this interpretation workflow is verified by comparison with known geologic structures on the plane and profile. The results suggest that the random forest algorithm is feasible to indicate geologic structure interpretations in the case of collapsed column and fault structures and it can effectively improve the efficiency of seismic interpretation and its accuracy. The machine-learning-based workflow provides a new technique for seismic structure interpretation in coal mining.