Abstract

We have investigated the effects of organic content and maturation on the elastic properties of source rock shales, mainly through integration of a well-log database from the Central North Sea and associated geochemical data. Our aim is to improve the understanding of how seismic properties change in source rock shales due to geologic variations and how these might manifest on seismic data in deeper, undrilled parts of basins in the area. The Tau and Draupne Formations (Kimmeridge shale equivalents) in immature to early mature stages exhibit variation mainly related to compaction and total organic carbon (TOC) content. We assess the link between depth, acoustic impedance (AI), and TOC in this setting, and we express it as an empirical relation for TOC prediction. In addition, where S-wave information is available, we combine two seismic properties and infer rock-physics trends for semiquantitative prediction of TOC from VP/VS and AI. Furthermore, data from one reference well penetrating mature source rock in the southern Viking Graben indicate that a notable hydrocarbon effect can be observed as an addition to the inherently low kerogen-related velocity and density. Published Kimmeridge shale ultrasonic measurements from 3.85 to 4.02 km depth closely coincide with well-log measurements in the mature shale, indicating that upscaled log data are reasonably capturing variations in the actual rock properties. Amplitude variation with offset inversion attributes should in theory be interpreted successively in terms of compaction, TOC, and maturation with associated generation of hydrocarbons. Our compaction-consistent decomposition of these effects can be of aid in such interpretations.

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