Abstract

Porosity is a fundamental property that characterizes the storage capability of fluid and gas-bearing formations in a reservoir. An accurate porosity value can be measured from core samples in the laboratory; however, core analysis is expensive and time consuming. Well-log data can be used to calculate porosity, but the availability of log suites is often limited in mature fields. Therefore, robust porosity prediction requires integration of core-measured porosity with available well-log suites to control for changes in lithology and fluid content. A support vector machine (SVM) model with mixed kernel function (MKF) is used to construct the relationship between limited conventional well-log suites and sparse core data. Porosity is the desired output, and two conventional well-log responses (gamma ray [GR] and bulk density) and three well-log-derived parameters (the slope of GR, the slope of density, and Vsh) are input parameters. A global stochastic searching algorithm, particle swarm optimization (PSO), is applied to improve the efficiency of locating the appropriate values of five control parameters in MKF-SVM model. The results of SVM with different traditional kernel functions were compared, and the MKF-SVM model provided an improvement over the traditional SVM model. To confirm the advantage of the hybrid PSO-MKF-SVM model, the results from three models: (1) radial basis function (RBF)-based least-squares SVM, (2) multilayer perceptron artificial neural network (ANN), and (3) RBF ANN, are compared with the result of the hybrid PSO-MKF-SVM model. The results indicate that the hybrid PSO-MKF-SVM model improves porosity prediction with the highest correlation coefficient (γ of 0.9560), the highest coefficient of determination (R2 of 0.9140), the lowest root-mean-square error (1.6505), average absolute error value (1.4050), and maximum absolute error (2.717).

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