Abstract

Defining the root zone of mud volcanoes (MVs), structural interpretation, and geologic modeling of their body is a problematic task when only seismic data are available. We have developed a strategy for integration of gravity and seismic data for better structural interpretation. Our strategy uses the concept of the normalized full gradient (NFG) for integration of gravity and seismic data to define geometry and the root zone of MVs in the southeast onshore of the Caspian Sea. Our strategy will increase the resolution of the seismic envelope compared with the conventional Hilbert transform. Prior to interpretation, we applied the NFG method on field gravity data. First, we perform a forward-modeling step for accurate NFG parameter definition. Second, we estimate the depth of the target, which is the root zone of the MV here. Interpretation of field gravity data by optimized NFG parameters indicates an accurate depth of the root zone. Subsequently, we apply the NFG method with optimized parameters on a 2D seismic data. Application of our strategy on seismic data will enhance resolution of the seismic image. The depth of the root zone and the geometry of the MV and mud flows was interpreted better on the enhanced image. It also illustrates the complex structure of a giant buried MV, which was not well-interpreted on conventional seismic image. Interpretation of the processed data reveals that the giant MV had lost its connection to its reservoir, whereas the other MV is still connected to the mud reservoir. The giant MV is composed of complex bodies due to pulses in the mud flows. Another MV in the section indicates narrow neck with anticline and listric normal faults on its top. Thus, application of the NFG concept on seismic image could be considered as an alternative to obtain enhanced seismic image for geologic interpretation.

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