Fractures and fracture-related dissolution pores, as well as cavities, molds, and vugs, provide the major conduit and/or storage space for hydrocarbons in the deeply buried carbonate hill of Hexiwu field, Bohai Bay Basin. The fractured reservoir generally has lower porosity but better permeability than moldic/vuggy reservoir, and it consists of the major part of the buried-hill slope and buried-hill internal reservoirs. The conventional method of characterizing carbonate reservoirs, however, often mixes these two types of reservoirs together because they both have low acoustic impedance and low bulk modulus. The rock-physics analysis of two field wells indicates that a pore-structure parameter defined in a rock-physics model, the so-called Sun model, can help to distinguish the fractured reservoir zones together with porosity. Fractured zones usually have porosity of less than 5% and a pore-structure parameter of greater than six, whereas moldic/vuggy reservoirs of higher porosity have a pore-structure parameter of less than six. Field-scale application demonstrates that simultaneous prestack seismic inversion for the porosity and pore-structure parameter enables 3D mapping of fractured reservoir zones in the buried carbonate hills. It also provides an analog of detecting fractures and/or fracture-related pores in deeply buried carbonates in similar geologic settings.

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